Facade insulation systems
Facade insulation is a specialised type of construction that allows reducing heating costs significantly, preventing condensation in the internal structures of the building and achieving good sound insulation.
Since various natural or artificial materials have different thermal conductivity, it is very important to choose the most effective insulation materials when insulating the buildings.
In construction, facades are usually divided into ventilated and plastered (“wet“). The selection of one or another type of facade depends on the purpose of the building, requirements and available budget.
PLASTERED FACADE INSULATION SYSTEMS
Plastered facades are also called “wet“ or unventilated. If the building is insulated with a plaster finish, the special insulation systems and elements that allow protecting the building’s external walls from the environment and at the same time reducing heat loss are used.
The plastered facade systems are divided according to the insulation materials and finishing mixtures. Foam polystyrene or stone wool is most commonly used to insulate buildings.
We use only certified facade insulation and finishing systems, such as CAPAROL, BAUMIT, CERESIT, SAKRET, that have earned the trust of construction professionals and receive good feedback due to their quality and durability.
Polystyrene foam (EPS)
Polystyrene foam is one of the most popular facade insulation materials. It is a very light material with good thermal insulation properties and low water absorption. It does not provide a favourable medium for mild growth and is low flammable. The research has confirmed that sealed air is the best thermal insulator; therefore, air-containing materials have lower thermal conductivity. Polystyrene foam contains 98% air pores and only 2% dense material. It is made from styrene by blowing foam with gas. Its production uses a small amount of energy and leaves almost no waste. Thus, polystyrene foam (EPS) is environmentally safe and recyclable.
Polystyrene foam is mechanically strong – resistant to crushing, bending and impact. Therefore, it is suitable for insulation of pedestals and facades. This property does not vary with changes in humidity and temperature. In addition, the pressed foam remains smooth and no pits are formed. Another positive feature of the material is that the structure of polystyrene foam consists of closed air pores that prevents from moisture and contaminants.
Polystyrene foam is resistant to aging. It retains its thermal insulation and mechanical properties and performs its functions throughout the entire life of the building.
In construction, polystyrene foam is used only with flame retardant additives. Such foam can burn only when directly exposed to flame. When the flame source is removed, the polystyrene foam stops burning.
White polystyrene is most commonly used in individual construction. The new generation of grey insulation boards provides 23% better insulation properties due to infrared absorbing material (graphite particles). Some grey insulation boards are coated with a light-reflecting layer to protect against UV rays better.
It is very important to pay attention to “CE certificate“ marking that means the highest quality. It ensures you will choose only the material that meets the highest requirements.
Stone wool is used in construction for more than 60 years; it is non-flammable and resistant to high temperatures. Its use increases the passive fire protection of the building. This material is ideal for lower heating costs, high sound insulation and energy efficiency. It is divided into stone and glass wool, depending on the material from which it is made.
The stone wool consists of artificial mineral fibres containing from 95.5 to 99.5% of amorphous silicates and from 0.5 to 4.5% of an organic binder mixture.
Stone wool can hardly moistens. The water escapes from the surface, does not penetrate inwards and does not absorb moisture from the ambient air. As a result, its insulating properties remain excellent for many years. By using stone wool in exterior constructions, you will prevent the accumulation of moisture in the house, reduce the risk of mould and fungus and create a healthy, pleasant indoor microclimate.
Stone wool has an open pore structure and absorbs sound perfectly.
Due to its disordered structure, stone wool has a stable shape and elasticity, does not form cold bridges, and maintains its physical and mechanical parameters throughout its service life.
Structure (layers) of plastered facade certified systems
Thermal insulation (insulation) layer – polystyrene foam (EPS) or stone wool.
Reinforced layer – a mixture of glue and plaster additionally reinforced with reinforcing mesh. This layer is also a significant element between the decorative and insulation layers, so it is especially important to use only high quality and certified materials. When selecting reinforcement meshes, it is necessary to take into account their durability and resistance to load.
A protective decorative layer is designed to protect the building's insulation materials from the external effects of the environment and to give the building facade an aesthetic appearance.
All these layers must have good water absorption, frost resistance, thermal expansion, and vapour permeability parameters.
Each component of the facade insulation system and the used materials must be accompanied with the appropriate technical certificates.
We do not use materials offered by cheap and unknown manufacturers that can shorten the service life of the system and impair the quality of the plastered facade system.
VENTILATED FACADE INSULATION SYSTEMS
Ventilated facade is a method of insulation of a building, where a gap is left between the wall, facade insulation material and the decoration layer, where the air circulates freely and thus prevents moisture from forming and being absorbed into the insulation material. The galvanised steel, aluminium or stainless steel profile frames are used in ventilated facade systems.
The external walls of the insulated building breathe – the air moving in the gap evaporates moisture faster after rain or under other environmental conditions that can cause moisture. In addition, the air gap increases the thermal resistance of the entire wall of the building.
Fibre-cement boards or high-pressure laminates HPL, as well as plastic, wood, plastic-wood siding are most commonly used for finishing ventilated facades.
The special insulation systems are used to insulate the building with a ventilated decoration. The most commonly used materials are stone wool and wind protection boards with low air permeability.
The frame of the ventilated facade insulation system consists of a system of fasteners and profiles that are subject to special requirements.
Requirements for aluminium frame system
Only extruded aluminium profiles are used.
Aluminium alloy is made according to EN AW 6060.
Only stainless steel self-tapping screws are used for connections.
Profile length – no more than 3 000 mm.
Requirements for galvanised frame system
The profile must be made of S280GD+Z275mac or S320 GD+Z275 EN 10346:2009 or higher class steel.
The profiles cannot be cut with abrasive disks. They must be cut with scissors or band saw.
The length of the continuous profile must be equal or less than 3 000 mm or at each floor of the building.
Galvanised or stainless steel self-tapping screws must be used for profile connections.
All connections of the profiles must be in one row to attach the facade panels to them later.
The connection of metal profiles must never be in the middle of the panel.
The attachment of the ventilated facade frame can be horizontal or vertical.
It is very important to maintain the distance between the insulation material and the decoration layer. Minimum distance must be at least 25 mm. By reducing the gap, there is a risk that the surfaces will touch and the air will not be able to move freely. There will be no advantage of this structure. Excessive air gap also has a negative effect, as increased draught absorbs some of the heat and air movement generates extraneous sounds.
Structure (layers) of ventilated facade certified systems
System frame – galvanised steel or aluminium profile.
Thermal insulation layer – stone wool.
Wind insulation layer – wind protection boards.
Decoration / protective layer – fibre-cement boards or high pressure laminates HPL.